Intro

Welcome to the now-biweekly CR Press Newsletter. This marks a very special time for our CR ecosystem. DPoS officially began June 17th.

We have a huge number of updates.  In summary:

  1. The Starfish Supernode has added a neat feature on their elanodes.com website that calculates rewards.
  2. The Elastos Foundation came out with special instructions regarding the Supernode setup.
  3. EF also came out with an updated Main Net Road Map for all the community to see.
  4. The Elastos DX team is ramping up their efforts for the betterment of CR. Their Elastos Academy website and services will be coming soon.
  5. Jimmy Lipham, from the Elastos DX team, posted a new video regarding many exciting updates.
  6. Ecosystem partner, DMA, has come out with new technical updates and special news about the first ever decentralized e-commerce store on Elastos.
  7. Clarence from the Elastos Foundation engaged in constructive dialogue in China concerning the music space.
  8. EF Member Sunny Feng Fan dispelled some FUD about his MIT relationship.
  9. Elephant Wallet has implemented Multi-signature in their wallet.
  10. CR Press’s very own Famous Amos came out with a great breakdown video of the Elastos Runtime.
  11. Much thanks to Elate.ch, Thai SN, Strawberries Supernodes, ElaForest Supernode, Sunny Feng Han and Houston Supernode for being the first CR Supernode sponsors!
  12. Please remember to visit the CR News website and see our new sponsorship page.  We also have the CR Opinions tab for all to read and contribute to. If any community member has any relevant information to contribute to CR please pull up our news submission form on the website.

Elastos Foundation officially announced the completion of Phases 4 and 5 in the DPoS Consensus implementation timeline. This includes the latest updated code to fully support a fully integrated DPoS consensus. Phase 5 was completed mid-day on June 17th UTC time. The complete DPoS Consensus began operating at block 402,680.

Elastos Foundation came out with full documentation on how to setup a Supernode. (https://news.elastos.org/supernode-setup-automation-script/) This includes the technical requirements, installation, and how to run the node. For further support and question please reach out to support@elastos.org.  

EF also came out with a comprehensive update regarding the Main Net Road Map. (https://news.elastos.org/updated-main-net-development-roadmap/) This is one of the bigger updates that has been shared with the community. CR Press has done a full wrap-up piece on this update. Please read it below for all the specifics related to the new Main Net Road Map.

The Elastos Developer Experience (DX) Team has started to promote their services to the community. Elastos Academy will be the learning arena for prospective developers. Check out the tweet Elastos Academy posted on Twitter https://twitter.com/elastosacademy/status/1139211945586941954?s=21 and stay tuned for the official release of Elastos Academy.

Jimmy Lipham, an advisor to the Elastos DX team, has recently just posted a video update on the DX team’s progress as well as his own projects that he’s building on top of the Elastos platform. For more details on Jimmy’s updates, please scroll down for a comprehensive summation!

The creator of elanodes.com, Starfish Node, has added a new feature on their website. Go to elanodes.com/calculator to find out your approximate rewards. You can sort the price of ELA, Voter Reward percentage, Supernode Ranking, Supernode Total Vote Percent, and Your ELA Voting Power and Voter Turnout.

Ecosystem partner DMA will be opening the first decentralized e-commerce store on Elastos. (https://medium.com/@elastosdma/introducing-the-first-decentralised-e-commerce-store-on-elastos-dma-2810b96fc881?source=friends_link&sk=6fbd5b4bba57a9cc9b90095a7af0e304). The first merchant will be a t-shirt and apparel store operated by the StarryMedia team. DMA hopes there are more trusted merchants that join the store in the future. The Android version is now complete and the team plans to create the iOS version soon.

DMA also is running their own Supernode and will be distributing 75% of their rewards to voters. The team has come out with technical updates related to their ETH sidechain, Uptick dApp beta, along with the new Elastos Rights Management Platform project.

Clarence Liu from the Elastos Foundation had very constructive talks in China related to the music industry. There are some rumors Elastos may partner up with Ditto Music. Ditto Music is one stop shop for artists in order to market, promote, and distribute their music to the world while taking a fraction of the commission that normal music labels do. We will be keeping an ear out for updates concerning this potential partnership!

Sunny Feng Han was under some scrutiny from someone on Twitter regarding his relationship with MIT. Sunny posted a picture of the contract online to dispel the FUD. (https://twitter.com/SunnyFengHan/status/1135259123573043202)

Elephant Wallet has come up with multi-signature functionality on its wallet, and several more updates have undergone testing.

CR Press has a lot of important updates, too. Active contributor Famous Amos posted an enlightening video on the Elastos Runtime https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pv7UKimtlZY&t=21s.  

CR Press Supernode has received their first five Supernode Sponsorships in addition to Sunny Feng Han’s sponsored Supernode for CR Press.  Each of these nodes have been given a “golden star” to mark their initiative. Much thanks to Elate.ch, Thai SN, Houston Supernode, Wild Strawberries Supernodes, and ELA Forest Supernodes for their gracious support of the team.  Both Wild Strawberries and ELA Forest Supernodes donated above 5% of their rewards to the CR Press team, which gives them the prestige of CR “Keeps”. This means we will be featuring articles on each of these on our website in addition to several other benefits.

If you are a Supernode that wants to jump in on Supernode Sponsorship opportunities, please visit the Sponsorship page! (https://news.cyberrepublic.org/supernodesponsors/)

Have an opinion concerning CR or the crypto industry overall? Check out and submit your own thoughts on the new Opinions page on the CR News website to explore multiple perspectives on topics. (https://news.cyberrepublic.org/category/cyber-republic-news/opinion/)

-By Jeremy G.

Summary

Read the previous update on our website: https://news.cyberrepublic.org/weekly-report-june-3rd-2019/

Read the Elastos Weekly Update here: https://news.elastos.org/elastos-weekly-updates-07-june-2019/

We have a Cyber Republic Documentation site with relevant introductory information about Cyber Republic, including the constitution, voting and proposals, and leadership.  Check it out here:

https://www.cyberrepublic.org/docs/#/overview/intro

If you have any content you’d like to submit to our team, please email us at:

press@cyberrepublic.org

Analytics:

CR Website:

CR Forum:

CR News Website:

Project Updates

Cyber Republic Website

Git Activity and Updates

Cartels and Whales in DPoS Voting

By Kenneth K

One of the greatest concerns about DPoS is the probability of “Cartels” and “Whales” taking over the ecosystem.  Many a blockchain has fallen prey to this, and their communities have collapsed as a result. Both “Whale” and “Cartel” are terms often used in negative connotation when dealing with true decentralization.

A “Whale”, for the sake of this article, is any one individual who can significantly change the rankings of the trusted nodes and influence the entire DPoS rankings single-handedly.  A “Cartel” is a group of individuals who could do the same, but with their combined power.

Both are forms of centralization, and both are impossible to avoid or ignore.  There will always be wealthy people, and alliances will always form just as friendships naturally build between various individuals and groups.

It’s important to recognize that these aren’t wrong; villainizing friendship and networking is not the answer…but these people and organizations need to handle their systems and power carefully, especially when dealing with a blockchain built on trust.

The Supernodes that verify the very ecosystem our hopes and dreams are built on must be trustworthy, and the well-known fact is that trustworthiness and power don’t go hand in hand.

If “Whales” or “Cartels” can dramatically change who represents our blockchain’s consensus, the community should be concerned.  The purpose of this article is not to judge, but to bring awareness to this reality.

April 19th, 2019, DPoS Voting went live.

Supernodes have been battling for reputation and community support through airdrops, campaigns, and ecosystem contributions.  Even our own CR Press team has put our hat into the runnings (Rank 65 at the time of this writing). Rankings have fluctuated greatly, leaders have risen and fallen and patterns have emerged.

Some of these patterns are disturbing.

When unknown nodes without website, reputation, campaign, or known contributions rockets up from nowhere, and suddenly becomes a top ten node, it gets attention.  When one wallet’s vote contributes a massive 150k ELA, it gets attention.

Why is this happening and who is behind these actions?  And at what point is the spirit of decentralization lost?

There’s a pattern visible which displays a standard voting pattern of 5000 ELA of the top 24 active nodes–the most important nodes of CR:

List 1 (Node Name- Number of 5000 Vote Batches)

  1. *Elephant Wallet- 24x 5000
  2. *WeFilmChain- 35x 5000
  3. *ElastosHIVE- 27x 5000
  4. *ELA.Sydney- 34x 5000
  5. *ManhattanProjectFund- 15x 5000
  6. Elastos Scandinavia- 0x 5000
  7. Wild Strawberry Atlas- 0x 5000
  8. Wild Strawberry Calypso- 0x 5000
  9. *SunnyFengHan- 16x 5000
  10. *RUOLAN- 29x 5000
  11. *TYROLEE- 29x 5000
  12. Enter Elastos – Callisto- 0x 5000
  13. ElastosDMA- 1x 5000
  14. Enter Elastos – Titan- 0x 5000
  15. *DHG- 27x 5000
  16. Enter Elastos – Ganymede- 0x 5000
  17. *HashWorld- 24x 5000
  18. Noderators – Watermelon- 0x 5000
  19. Noderators – Champagne- 0x 5000
  20. *Elafans- 24x 5000
  21. *KANG- 30x 5000
  22. The Houston Supernode-0x 5000
  23. Wild Strawberry Apollo- 0x 5000
  24. *greengang-26x 5000

As you can see from this list, there’s a combined voting power of up to 170,000 ELA in 5000 ELA batches on several nodes.  These 5000 ELA batches are generally all in support, or not at all for any particular node, which means that it’s a single organization or individual voting in focused effort for 12-13 of these top 24 nodes.  This represents half of our trusted consensus Supernodes.

We’ll analyze this further, but first, what about the 150k ELA “Whale” wallet previously mentioned?  This wallet voted for:

List 2

  1. *Elephant Wallet
  2. WeFilmChain
  3. *Elastos HIVE
  4. *ELA.Sydney
  5. *ManhattanProjectFund
  6. *Elastos Scandinavia
  7. *Wild Strawberries Atlas
  8. *Wild Strawberries Calypso
  9. SunnyFengHan
  10. RUOLAN
  11. TYROLEE
  12. *Enter Elastos – Callisto
  13. *ElastosDMA
  14. *Enter Elastos – Titan
  15. DHG
  16. *Enter Elastos – Ganymede
  17. HashWorld
  18. *Noderators – Watermelon
  19. *Noderators – Champagne
  20. Elafans
  21. KANG
  22. *The Houston Supernode
  23. *Wild Strawberry Apollo
  24. greengang

These Supernodes represent 15 of the top 24 nodes, more than half of the top active nodes.  

List 3 are nodes that received votes from both List 1 and List 2:

List 3

  1. Elephant Wallet
  2. Elastos HIVE
  3. ELA.Sydney
  4. ManhattanProjectFund

What has made the “Whale” vote for some nodes, and the “Cartel” vote for others?  What is the reasoning behind their logic? And at what point is the spirit of decentralization betrayed?

Essentially, the most critical questions become:

Are our active and trusted Supernodes based on influence and power, a list of predetermined votes, or are the Supernodes based on what’s best for the ecosystem?

Could a Supernode simply buy or network their way into power, and if so, does that mean CR is truly a reflection of a democratic community?

In List 1, all the voted nodes are obviously associated by their organization and they are voting between each other because the variance on group voting is so low.  The only variations within List 1 seems to be ElastosDMA with a single vote from a member in that organization, and also the ManhattanProjectFund and SunnyFengHan Supernodes having received about half the usual votes of the 5000 batches.

In the “Whale’s” case, there seems to be no obvious association between the nodes as some of the nodes come from Alliances, some are vocal Independents, some are pools, and some are also on List 1.

It is easy to speculate motivation, and perhaps that’s best left outside this article.  Be assured that this is not meant to criminalize or demonize any party, but one thing is sure: there are big players and they are moving aggressively.  If the community is seeking to have a voice, it begins now, and they must make sure to vote en-mass to be effective enough to distribute trust across the various types of Supernodes.

Power is not the issue.  Passivity is.

Updated Main Net Development Roadmap

By Jeremy G.

The Elastos Foundation has unleashed its newest Main Net Development roadmap to the community. Designing and perfecting the Main Net is in the Elastos Foundation’s highest priority. The following summarizes the updated Project Development Roadmap, which includes a Broad Overview and Comprehensive Roadmap of the Elastos Main Net development process. There are three distinct stages.

The Broad Overview includes each stage and highlights a few of the profound developments that have advanced Main Net to where it is today and where it will be in the future.

The Comprehensive Blueprint details each stage’s significance and development process in fine detail as well as providing gaugeable and time-specific targets along with technical nuances that ultimately affect full implementation.

Broad Overview:

Elastos Main Net 1.0: Main Net Goes Live

This stage of Main Net was defined by the established of critical developer teams and the launch of basic technical infrastructure and core tech. Main Net 1.0 converted the vision of Elastos to an official viable working product.

Significant Events:

August 2017: Establishment of the Elastos Blockchain Developer Team

December 22, 2017: Elastos Main Net 1.0 went live. This enabled ELA transfers and officially launched the Elastos Browser and Web Wallet. Merged-mining with Bitcoin underwent R&D and testing by the Blockchain Team dedicated to btc.com, Bitmain’s BTC mining pool. Elastos AUX POW and DPoS hybrid consensus mechanism underwent proper R&D and testing as well.

June 2018- DID Sidechain was officially implemented, a watershed moment for Elastos, as it officially verified Elastos’ unique main chain-sidechain architecture was capable of supporting real world scalability

August 26, 2018- Mining pool and ecosystem partner Bitmain officially merged-mined Elastos on the Bitcoin blockchain. Elastos Main Net began a limited AuxPoW consensus mechanism.

Elastos Main Net 2.0: Main Net Upgrade and Complete Consensus

This stage in Main Net is defined by a fully functional and decentralized blockchain. The launch of merge-mining operations and gathering DPoS nodes through a democratic election process.

Significant Events:

March 3, 2019: Merged-mining officially opened up to the public. First round of DPoS Elections began as Elastos AuxPoW_DPoS hybrid consensus was being developed. This ensures that each node would act as a protector of the Elastos Main Net and secure transactions on the Elastos Blockchain.

June 17, 2019: Elected Supernodes join CRC Supernodes in DPoS consensus. Consensus is officially live and votes are recounted every 36 blocks (Every 72 minutes) Improvements will continue on the Elastos infrastructure with a specific focus on the sidechain architecture.

Elastos Main Net 3.0: Community Autonomy and Self-Governance

Stage three of Main net is defined by the empowerment of Cyber Republic as a fully autonomous community capable of self-governance.

Significant Events:

August 2019: Official launch of the CRC election process. Cyber Republic White Paper will be released along with the Elastos Improvement Proposal (ELIP). As these community pillars are established, CR will gradually advance toward full autonomy. CR will have its own governance structure, goals, and community members while serving as a voice for the community.

Comprehensive Roadmap of the Elastos Main Net

Elastos Main Net 1.0: Main Net Goes Live

Implementation of Blockchain, its P2P network Carrier, merged-mining along with the launch of Elastos’ first sidechain (DID). As stated in the update: “Elastos designed a blueprint for a decentralized internet that preserves the privacy and ownership rights of its users while solving the data and digital asset double spend problem”.

Elastos Main Net 2.0: Main Net Upgrade and Complete Consensus

Merged-mining was one of the focal points of the Main Net 2.0 Upgrade. Top mining pools such as BTC.com, Antpool, BTC.TOP, ViaBTC, F2Pool and Huobi.pool have started to participate in merged-mining ELA on top of the Bitcoin blockchain. The Elastos network now boats approximately 50% hashpower of the entire Bitcoin network. Another key addition to the Main Net 2.0 is the launch of the Elastos DPoS consensus mechanism and sidechain architecture.

Key Developments:

1)      March 2019 to June 5th, 2019: Official Upgrade and Release of Elastos Main Net 2.0

March 2019: Elastos Main Net underwent its first upgrade for DPoS functionality and Elastos Main net was upgraded from AuXPoW to AuxPoW+ DPoS. At this time the 12 CRC nodes were the first to participate in Consensus.

May 31, 2019: Elastos Main Net had its second upgrade for DPoS functionality. After this upgrade the Elastos Main Net was fully ready for community-elected DPoS nodes.

June 5, 2019: Supernode setup documentation and instructions were officially published and community began setting up DPoS Supernodes. The Elastos Blockchain team also provided service support for the Supernodes.

2)      June 17, 2019: Elastos Main Net will take a snapshot on this date at block height 402,680. After the first round is completed, DPoS earning will be distributed amongst Supernodes.

3)      June 17, 2019: Official Release of Ethereum and NEO Sidechains in the Elastos Test Net

Both the Ethereum and NEO Sidechains will go live on the Test Net on June 17, 2019 with open source code available on GitHub. These sidechains will accompany the DID and Token Side Chains as well.

4)      July, 2019: Official Release Plans for Ethereum and NEO Sidechains

After the Elastos Wallet has fully integrated dApp tokens from the Ethereum and NEO Sidechains, the Elastos Foundation will officially announce the launch of the Ethereum and NEO Side Chains and invite community developers to create mature blockchain browsers and wallets for both sidechains. Pending feedback from the Test Net and developer community, the Elastos Blockchain team fully expects the launch of the NEO and Ethereum side chains in July 2019

5)      Relevant Functions of Elastos DMA Achieving Node

Once Ethereum and NEO Sidechains are implemented on the Main Net, DMA will also be released on the Elastos Main Net as well.

6)      Cross-Chain Solution

Transfers between the Main Chain and side chains are secured by joint signatures from public chain arbitrators as well as from SPV mechanism. These multiple arbitrator signatures are responsible for signing off on transfers when tokens are moved from a sidechain to the main chain. These main chain and side chain value transfers is secured by SPV. Thus, a decentralized consensus on transfers and transactions can be reached via data architecture and involved algorithms.

7)      High Performance, DPoS-Based Sidechains

The Elastos Blockchain Developer Team are now working on the development of further DPoS-based, high-TPS sidechains to satisfy the needs of a plethora of applications, all of which require a variety of processing speeds.

8)      Solution for Crosschain Value Conversions

Elastos Crosschain technology provides a solution for an autonomous DEX and decentralized value conversion. The Core team will not be involved in the future operation of a DEX so it’s up to the community developers to follow the progress of the Elastos Crosschain Solution to provide high quality value conversion products and serves to the community.

Main Net 3.0: Main Net Autonomy and Self-Governance

The goal of Main Net 3.0 is to establish a fully autonomous CR community capable of self-governance. This system will consist of a structured body of democratically elected individuals and well crafted documentation that lays the foundation of decentralized governance and decision making process. The following action steps are:

1)      Form Cyber Republic

Cyber Republic Consensus (CRC) will officially complete development for basic functionality and determine the practicability of community proposals solely based on the completion of certain various components of the Main Net. Cyber Republic votes will only be cast for a single candidate. Community members should know that a single ELA can be used to cast votes in both the DPoS Supernode elections and CRC elections and that the elections are not mutually exclusive

2)      Conduct Community Elections

Once an autonomous CR is formed and the necessary tech development is in place, the focus will directly shift to conducting community elections. There will be seven steps in conducting these Community Elections.

1.       ELIP (Elastos Improvement Proposal): ELIP is a specialized design document that will provide information of processes and new features which include technical specs and fundamentals to the Elastos community. ELIP acts as the main guidance for improving the Elastos technology. Each version of ELIP will be reviewed by the community and maintained by the CRC.

2.       Cyber Republic Council White Paper: This WP will be assembled by the Interim Council and Secretariats that summarizes previous and current work done in pursuit of shaping and improving CR. This WP will share their recommendations for the future of the ecosystem. The whitepaper will be published for all community members to read and engage over.

3.       August 2019 to October 2019: Collect Opinions on Rules and Related Adjustments: Once the rules of the CRC are published the Blockchain Developer team will collect opinions from the global community. Once all opinions are gathered, development activities will take place to implement the related adaptations and adjustments.

4.       August 2019 to January 2020: Conduct Preparations for Official Community Election: All CRC candidates must be active through the CR forum and other community channels. CR Public relations and media groups, such as CR Press, will be reporting on CRC candidates and inspire interaction amongst community members regarding the election process. As stated in the update, “CRC election candidates may broadcast their background, strengths, and conception of CR, and highlight how they will address stakeholder concerns, such as developer tools, and user experience for DApp users. Broadcasting community concerns through a democratic election is the most effective way to feature the committee’s vision of CR. Finally, through blockchain-based, democratic online elections, the entire community can contribute to establishing the Elastos Smartweb and its Cyber Republic community together.” As the CRC candidates are marketing themselves to the community for the coveted leadership position, the mechanics of the election process shall be ironed out during this time to ensure a fully autonomous election process.

5.       Q4 2019: The CRC Voting Application Undergoes final debugging and open community testing.

6.       Progress Pending: Official Release of CRC Consensus

7.       Progress Pending: The Elected CRC Commences Governance Operations of CR

The significance of the Main Net 3.0 will be better security for core Elastos tech such as Elastos Carrier and Elastos Hive as well as creating a greater space for development improvements. This environment will fully support a series of new and exciting products that includes Elastos Native Runtime, Digital Capsule and Personal Cloud Computer (PCC).

After the release of the Ethereum and NEO Sidechains, the focus from Q3 2019 to Q2 of 2020 will be on the full formation of the Elastos technology. Following the execution of these technological milestones, the CRC will be elected through an official community election. Elastos community proposals will be submitted through the CR website and subject to a vote by the democratically elected CRC. If a proposal is accepted, the community will be notified and scheduled for implementation. To conclude this update, the philosophy of completing fully autonomy of CR is to mold together the community and the Elastos Smart Web as one. “The development of the Elastos community and Elastos Smartweb are intertwined; the two influence and balance one another. Only when both are developing in harmony can an open source, transparent, and autonomous Modern Internet be realized.” As we all embark on this journey of building a smarter and safer Web for future generations, it’s up to us to implement each and every step of the process. Let’s continue to build CR together.

Compliant exchanges: Binance and Nash

By Lex Pablo

Binance, world’s largest crypto exchange platform by volume, and Nash, City of Zion affiliated DEX, are making moves. The two prominent exchanges are taking major steps to stay compliant and develop their operations.

Some confusing messages may have led to unfounded dismay and excitement as at first glance Binance seemed to be pulling out of the country while Nash appears to have gotten big-time approval.

Let’s take a closer look.

Yesterday, crypto powerhouse Binance has announced that it will be “unable to provide services to any U.S. person” on its main site come September this year to comply with global compliance requirements.

“After 90 days, effective on 2019/09/12, users who are not in accordance with Binance’s Terms of Use will continue to have access to their wallets and funds, but will no longer be able to trade or deposit on binance.com.”

So, fortunately, this is not the end for American users on Binance.  They make up close to one-fifth of total users (a number that was almost one-third of their total at the height of the previous bull run).

The strict regulatory setting in the States is a hurdle that the company has prepared for and this effort has led to the recent approval of their FinCEN* registration. (*FinCen is the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, a bureau of the United States Department of the Treasury and a safeguard of the US financial system.)

Binance has announced that they will be launching a compliant subsidiary for North America in partnership with BAM Trading Services Inc., similar to what Huobi has done with HBUS. This trend is likely to continue as the industry matures.

“We are excited to finally launch Binance.US and bring the security, speed, and liquidity of Binance.com to North America,” said CZ (Changpeng Zhao), CEO of Binance. “Binance.US will be led by our local partner BAM and will serve the U.S. market in full regulatory compliance.”

The chart below shows what the availability of various popular tokens currently accessible on Binance for US-based users might look like at the end of Q3. Binance could be leaving some room for other smaller exchanges to take advantage of with US-based users unable to trade certain popular tokens.

Credit to @remigoomba

There is no word yet on how long unverified users will be able to continue using the exchange.

Meanwhile, Nash, the decentralised exchange platform originally known as the Neon Exchange (NEX), has been spotted in the FinCEN registrant database, having submitting an initial registration to act as a Money Service Business in the entire US (Nash applied forCalifornia, Delaware, Minnesota and New Jersey back in March this year).

MIT Fireside Chat with Elastos DMA and Gavin Nicol

By Amos Thomas

On Sunday, May 26th, 2019, the MIT CEO Fireside chat was held. Present as speakers were Brian (Weimin) Xin and Gavin Nicol. Amos Thomas was also present as a reporter on behalf of CR Press. Many may already be aware of Brian and his project which is being developed utilizing the Elastos Ecosystem. However, for those who are not aware, here’s a quick recap.

Famous Amos (Left) & Brian (Right)

What is DMA?

DMA is Decentralized Marketing and Commerce.  It is a framework that is currently being developed by Brian Xin. DMA’s whitepaper states, “It utilizes the Elastos public resources and services, such as Main Chain as ledger, SideChain DID, distributed storage, Carrier’s P2P capability, to build the digital marketing layer, packed with various business logical modules.” These core resources are being used to construct and assist basic service modules which allows for digital asset management and exchange, digital copyrighted content marketplaces (more on this later), service-base and goods-based e-commerce platforms, and marketing tools. In a nutshell, DMA allows for data ownership and digital asset management in a space where many blockchain projects are aiming at but have yet to produce user friendly interfaces that can be assimilated by the wider public. The Elastos DMA Project could impact our daily lifestyles and change the way in which consumers interact with their data.

The Elastos DMA Project is not just talking the talk, but walking it. Brian presented, to MIT CEO, a few examples and his confidence in various projects currently being developed.

DMA Project Highlights

Uptick Dapp

Uptick is the first pilot dApp (e-ticketing) on DMA which Brian believes carries real market value. Brian expressed that the metrics that determine his competition in this market are readiness of infrastructure, usability of application, openness of the platform, and the business model. Uptick’s main use case in the E-ticketing space is to connect content creators to vital distribution channel/venues. Brian expressed high confidence in Uptick’s ability to compete with the likes of Stubhub and Eventbrite.

He clearly expressed Uptick’s advantage over ticketing giant Stubhub. For those who are unaware, StubHub is an online ticket exchange company owned by eBay, which provides services for buyers and sellers of tickets for sports, concerts, theater, and other live entertainment events. It has grown from the largest secondary-market ticket marketplace in the United States into the world’s largest ticket marketplace. Uptick has positioned itself as over both primary & secondary ticketing markets because of its unique core modules which utilize the Elastos Infrastructures. These core DMA modules allow for event organizers and artists to obtain their fair/full share while maintaining absolute control over e-ticket distribution. Further benefits entail the ability to dictate the terms on which tickets can be resold, ensuring that suppliers are always involved in all transactions related to their event.  

The Shanghai “Metro” App

DMA has been actively working on an app called “Metro”. Brian’s company has already provided consulting services to Shanghai and Beijing metro companies on the topic of “mobile internet + metro operation strategies” since 2015; they are considered experts in the field. The Shanghai metro official app was built on this strategy. Metro’s use case is not primarily geared towards any metro company in particular, but it is focused on helping passengers spend quality time during the trip with incentives. It is more like a companion app for metro passengers and it has a user-oriented approach. The China City Transportation Association is now making a mobile payment standard for all city metro ticketing services, such as QR code validation processes. Which, of course, will be available to Metro. Currently, there are 500,000 users testing this application.

The Elastos DMA project is pushing on. With the release of the Elastos Ethereum sidechain the community may see even more exciting developments out of DMA, thus, stay tuned!

Rights Management

Brian was not the only speaker at the MIT CEO fireside chat. Gavin Nicol, Gavin Nicol, who is the co-founding CTO at Copyright Delta, was also present and he spoke on Rights Management and Licensing utilizing blockchain technologies. He started off his speech by saying, “Blockchain is very early right now, and as Brian rightfully stated, the infrastructure must be laid out. That’s why I’m so excited about Elastos, Elastos is a project that is ACTUALLY laying out the foundation and saying let’s get it done.”

Gavin spoke of various Rights Management issues that should/could be addressed by blockchain technologies. The Music Industry OMI issue was particularly disturbing which has left billions of dollars worth unpaid to content creators due to the inability to identify them. Known companies like Spotify are plagued with this issue.

Gavin holds the position that blockchain can be used to assist with these issues but it will not completely solve them. Gavin aims to work with The Elastos DMA project to tackle the issue of Rights Management in the blockchain space.

The Future

A group, DMA & Gavin included, are working on a proposal together. They believe the short term priority for Elastos is to have more solid infrastructure-level Elastos services for business applications & developer communities.

DMA will be rocketed into the Rights management space, which is one of the four advertised use cases in DMA’s scope. They’re discussing plans that will make all copyrighted content manageable digital assets within the Elastos ecosystem.

Brian — “And we will work with infrastructure team on building digital capsule on Elastos runtime–the software based trust computing environment, which will be very important for Elastos near term success and market delivery. I believe this will be the major work of infrastructure team after the carrier and trinity releases.

Beside the Beside the industry guru Gavin, Daan, an active innovator with MIT media lab background, is also with the team. This is the great effort of JoChem and Orchard. We have been working on the plan for couple of months. I think we will be able to deliver a solid plan in early June. I hope the strong support from the community. I am also having the leading expert of MPEG.21 standard group on board, who has 20+ years experience in digital rights management, and holds several important patents (based in LA California). Ya, all guru team! Excited?

With DMA, Rights management module, digital capsule, runtime, carrier and hive, we will be able to a support great number of commercial dApps. The first wave is achievable in coming 6–12 months and is important for Elastos near term success in global market. The hardware related trust environment can be the long term goal and I see it’s also moving on these days. With all these together, I believe Elastos will be the solid and most used infrastructure for next gen internet in 3–5 years.”

We hope you’re excited, we sure are!

Google’s Keyboard Predicted (Part of) My Private Key

By Kenneth K

Today I went full paranoid as I entered the private key into Elastos Mobile wallet for access into a Supernode wallet.  I already hate this, as I don’t trust my phone, nor do I ever expose my private key except when completely necessary and certain that I am safe.

But, after I typed the very first word into my phone, I was given a suggested word, which, lo and behold, ended up being the next word in my private key.  This happened about 5 times in which Gboard, the native android phone keyboard, correctly predicted the next private key word.

After some research, it looks like Google has full permission to transmit this data however it pleases through the keyboard.  I can’t say I’m surprised, but I just didn’t think about this vulnerability, to be honest.

So, going full paranoid, I tried to uninstall the keyboard—yet I realized that on an android, I couldn’t uninstall it nor could I delete the information that has already been stored.  Old tutorials described a clearing cache option, but nothing was available to me now. All I could do is find another third party keyboard and remove whatever permissions I could from both.

Upon installing this new, third party keyboard, and trying to make it my default keyboard, I was given this disturbing message:

“This input method may be able to collect all the text that you type, including personal data like passwords and credit card numbers.  It comes from the app ________. Use this input method?”

If you read between the lines, you’ll understand that Google is letting you know that this is exactly what they’ve been doing all along with collecting personal data.

Not news, I know, but certainly a personal wake-up call in this case.

I have to trust some keyboard in order to use my phone, so I’ve made an independent choice that seems to be the best option, and I’ve denied any permissions it might need. It’s a keyboard; it doesn’t need WiFi, nor should it be able to.

A few conclusions come to mind:

  1. Elastos is the answer.
  2. Until we have Elastos Browser, I would like to see another option besides Elephant and Elastos Mobile wallet concerning Supernodes.  The phone is, to me, the most likely device to be compromised, and Supernode funds are no joke.
  3. Keystore, at least, would improve the situation rather than putting in the entire private key—though this doesn’t solve the problem that your keyboard has full access to what you are typing into it.  But use the Keystore that you can get from the Elastos Mobile Wallet and it will add an additional layer of protection at the very least.
  4. Hardware wallet support is coming, thanks to Ledger as well as the Noderator’s relationship with Ellipal, but hardware support in Supernode related funds, voting, and registration, needs to come fast.

As mentioned, I went full paranoid, and while I know I am “likely” safe, the phone’s keyboard is a clear vector of attack.  And though I deny application permissions regularly, I haven’t done a full sweep in a while. I was surprised to see many apps, including crypto apps, taking permissions that I can’t imagine them needing.

I urge the community to take a look at their own settings and application permissions and to consider switching their default keyboard to something better.  I also urge the Elastos Foundation to be ready to quickly implement hardware wallet support, and at the least, suggest better security standards in their apps and support desktop applications.

Note: I am not suggesting a specific keyboard because I do not want to have the responsibility (nor do I have the expert knowledge) of recommending any particular 3rd party keyboard. DYOR.

Fear Not Elastonians, Jimmy Lipham is Not Dead: DX Team Update

By Jeremy

Seriously, he’s alive and well. Jimmy has been a little preoccupied with his company with some heavy contracting in the past few months. Now, he is ready to work on some exciting projects and ramp up efforts for the DX team. In his latest Youtube video Jimmy goes over his role with the DX team, the DX team’s partnership with Elastos ecosystem partner, DMA, and updates on his popular doorbell.

First thing’s first, Jimmy goes over his role on the DX team. He serves as an advisor and leads the team along with Donnie Bullers while Kiran Pachhai and Martin Knight also compose the team. DX is trying to hone in on marketing and positioning, i.e. what ads work best for developers. Ultimately, they are trying to cultivate a community of developers that uses Elastos technology.

DX team is actively working with colleges and open source initiatives to give developers tools to not only work on the Elastos blockchain, but on any blockchain. The DX team will start as blockchain agnostic as possible. The goal is to develop the most ideal distributed app framework for developers in order to build games, powerful business dapps, and other intriguing dapps.

Jimmy, Donnie, KP, and Martin talk to each other each week to discuss strategic marketing along with planning content that will eventually turn into the Elastos Academy. This Academy will provide developers with documentation and tutorials to lead developers to Elastos.

The DX team will also be partnering with ecosystem partner DMA. The goal is to bring developers to DMA’s various frameworks and dapps through documentation and tutorials taught in the Elastos Academy. Developers will have live usable dapps to work with after studying the various tools used in the Elastos ecosystem.

Jimmy also gave a new update on his doorbell device. He received a prototype from a production run with printed circuit board. There still needs to be changes made in order to make it more reliable. Jimmy is very excited about the potential of his doorbell because he foresees data breaches and consumer privacy to be at risk with the “Ring Doorbell” and other devices out in the market. This project will continue with a 2nd revision designed in PCB layout software. It will be sent to China for fabrication in order to get to the next stage of development.

This is a low cost open source doorbell that can fit in any standard doorbell enclosure and currently records 720 video that’s saved on the user’s NAS or cloud. It is built to protect the consumer’s data and privacy and there’s no subscription needed.  This doorbell uses the Elastos Carrier which allows the saving and sending of data in a protected and safe network.

Stay tuned for more updates from the DX team. Jimmy will be doing more livestreams in order to best interact with the Elastos Community. He also has a new garage door opener in the works as well…so no, Jimmy isn’t dead. He’s alive and motivated to help lead the Elastos DX team in on-boarding developers onto Elastos.

Elastos Rights Management Platform Suggestion

By Jeremy G

June 15, 2019

A new Suggestion has just been dropped with significant potential and ambition, based on this fundamental question: ““How do we become truly relevant to every party involved in the process from content creation to real-time payments?”

https://www.cyberrepublic.org/suggestion/5d03305154bdae00948646ad

In a striking line, the Suggestion claims:

“Any next generation media business will fully depend on the quality of the underlying rights management platform which, due to the extremely diverse nature of the media world and the many conflicting interests, is one of the most complex topics to solve. The ecosystem that has the solution to this big challenge will become the preferred choice of any next generation media business.”

In the world of content creation, copyright protection is a massive issue throughout various industries (movies, music, books, gaming, etc), yet copyright issues have continued to persist without full resolution.

There is increasing demand for a better Copyright Management Solution which allows for instant payment whenever content is live streamed or sold. Until these copyright problems are solved with the ability to have a seamless and efficient payment system, large businesses will not likely decentralize.

Elastos and DMA are up for the task in tackling these lingering issues through the Elastos Rights Management Platform (ERM). This is based on API-requirements and use cases from the Open Music Initiative (OMI) and its partners. The Copyright Management Solution is aligned with international standards.

The team is providing an ideal solution for copyrights in various industries. Between the combination of the Elastos infrastructure, hardware suppliers, DMA services, the new Elastos Copyright Framework, and new DMA Copyright SDK’s, they will be the answer to one of the gravest problems the blockchain industry has yet to solve. This framework is directly tied from years of experience and work with the Open Music Initiative.

But how will this whole process work?

This rights management framework/layer connects each party and tracks all the steps in the process from the creation of music to its end use (Digital capsule or live streaming). The Elastos network will be used to facilitate fair payments that can be tracked live for each and every part involved in the transaction. Through Elastos Carrier and Trinity Browser, top notch security will be provided through this framework. Live payment and individual DID’s (Decentralized ID’s) will be additional features of the framework. ERM will be ready to use for any live streaming music & video service, publishers, smart venues, and dApps where users can buy and resell digital media.

In other words, this is the moment we’ve all been talking about.  This is what Elastos was designed to do, and in its early marketing, what many of us were most excited about.  For artists, this could be a complete game changer, changing the narrative from “starving artist” to “successful artist”, amongst other things like significantly reducing piracy and digital asset scarcity.

As stated above, ERM fully supports the Open Music Initiative. OMI is a non-profit initiative of Berklee College of Music that is composed of a plethora of leading academic institutions, music and media industry organizations, creators, technologists, entrepreneurs and policy experts who cherish and value music. The initial goal of this initiative was to plug in holes that the music ecosystem has and, in turn, ensure that music creators and contributors are compensated.

Team Members Daan and Gavin have been deeply involved in the OMI as leaders and have a deep understanding of the standards and problems that the music industry faces.

ERM also supports Mycelia, a research and developer hub for musicians worldwide. The team wants to unlock the huge potential for creators in the space and explore new technological solutions in order to fully impact the music ecosystem.

The project’s next steps are:

-Development of DMA rights management layer

-Development of SDKs and APIs

-Development of dApps

-Working prototype possible within 3 months

The projects boasts a versatile team that has an average of 15 years of experience in enterprise software development, music/media industry, blockchain technology and open industry partnerships. The team’s chemistry is undeniable in the sense that they’ve all been closely working together for the last four years. Here are bios of each team member and their role with the project:

Brian Xin- Founder of DMA, Starrymedia, and co-founder of Rivalwatch. He’s started businesses in the U.S. and in China. Brian will lead the team on behalf of Elastos DMA and will ensure that the solutions will be specially embedded with DMA in building a strong ecosystem.

Gavin Nicol- Technology leader, innovator, and software sales experience for 25+ years at multi-nationals and scale-ups worldwide. He initiated the main open-API & minimal viable interoperability vision at OMI.  Through his work at EBT, he is a founding member of the W3C and has broadly influenced many of the technologies underlying the modern web. He played a significant role in the development of the HTML, HTTP, XML, XSL, DOM, XPath, SVG, XQuery and XLink standards and in building some of the earliest prototypes and implementations of these technologies. He is considered “the father of I18N on the WWW”.

Daan Archer- Expert in music copyright and decentralized platform models. He led the technical working groups of the OMI aimed at aligning representatives of 60 companies.

Erik Beijnoff – Was a working group member of OMI, on behalf of Spotify where he has 4+ years of music industry experience. He is also the lead developer of Repertoire, the decentralized open copyright network.

Nico van Hanxleden – Expert in Platform Architectures, Data Analytics and Monetization with experience at Siemens, Atos Global, Veon and Dutch National Aerospace Lab.

Daniele Musio- Expert in Design with a strong focus on mobile. Worked at Eindhoven Design Academy, Politecnico di Milano and BCPT.

Jochem Herber- Member of the Elastos Orchard team and experienced Marketer, Consultant, and Educator. Jochem was the key cog in connecting Brian Xin with the rest of the team in building the Elastos & DMA copyright management framework and SDKs. He will ensure a healthy relationship between the Elastos DX team and the community.

Wang Xin (Advisor)- AT&T Mobile and Entertainment, Huawei Multimedia System, ContentGuard, Xerox Research. Over 23 years of industry experiences on DRM,

multimedia systems, content security and system architecture, and he holds over 150 patents

in these areas. Many of these patented technologies form the foundation of the current

DRM and multimedia systems in practice. He is one of the key contributors to the

ContentGuard’s XrML (eXtensible rights Markup Language), which was the base for the MPEG’s REL (Rights Expression Language) standard, and the primary author of the Contract Expression Language (CEL) for the Content Reference Forum. He has been contributing to a number of DRM and multimedia related standards including MPEG, 3GPP, OeBF, ISMA and China DRM. He was the chair of the IEEE DRM Workshop from 2007 to 2011.

We live in a world where Youtube, Spotify, iTunes and Facebook take the majority of the profits from content creators. ERM has goals to invert that relationship and give the power back to the artists, musicians, and content creators themselves. Are you ready for the flippening?

Read the entire suggestion and make sure to voice your support:

https://www.cyberrepublic.org/suggestion/5d03305154bdae00948646ad

CR Terminology:

By Kenneth K.

As there are many terms to such a large project like Elastos and Cyber Republic, we’ve decided to build a growing glossary of terms that can help the less technically acquainted understand better what the tech means and the impact it could have. This week we’re focusing on Daemon.

Term: Daemon

“In multitasking computer operating systems, a daemon (/ˈdiːmən/ or /ˈdeɪmən/) is a computer program that runs as a background process, rather than being under the direct control of an interactive user…

“In a Unix environment, the parent process of a daemon is often, but not always, the init process. A daemon is usually either created by a process forking a child process and then immediately exiting, thus causing init to adopt the child process, or by the init process directly launching the daemon. In addition, a daemon launched by forking and exiting typically must perform other operations, such as dissociating the process from any controlling terminal (tty). Such procedures are often implemented in various convenience routines such as daemon(3) in Unix.

“Systems often start daemons at boot time which will respond to network requests, hardware activity, or other programs by performing some task. Daemons such as cron may also perform defined tasks at scheduled times.

“The term was coined by the programmers of MIT’s Project MAC. They took the name from Maxwell’s demon, an imaginary being from a thought experiment that constantly works in the background, sorting molecules. Unix systems inherited this terminology. Maxwell’s Demon is consistent with Greek mythology’s interpretation of a daemon as a supernatural being working in the background, with no particular bias towards good or evil. However, BSD and some of its derivatives have adopted a Christian demon as their mascot rather than a Greek daemon.

“Daemons which connect to a computer network are examples of network services.”

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daemon_(computing)

Layman’s Terms: Daemon

A daemon isn’t just an alternate spelling of demon, but a computing term for a process that runs at certain times and under certain conditions, often performing administrative tasks for the OS.  This is all done without the influence or interaction of the user, and this is also one of the most common vectors of cyber attacks.

The daemon is neither evil nor good, but since the daemon often has access to parts of the machine that are critical and related to security, the safety of the user’s operating system could be compromised if a malicious code gets control or alters the daemon.  Which is a fitting image, really.

Elastos creates a “sandboxed environment” which prevents this type of cyber attack; it remains one of the most important selling points to adopting Elastos technology.

Community Shout Out:

Wild Strawberry Supernodes Sponsors CR Press Team with 6% of their Rewards!

Elastos Forest NodeSponsors CR Press Team with 5% of their Rewards!

International Community Events

Chinese Community

By Joel

Chinese Community Activities
DescriptionReference Link
Introducing the first decentralized e-commerce store dApp based on ElastosDMAhttps://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/jgrGJUG67XnIDIWzbqOEHQ
Thoughts on common questions about Elastos (1 – 6)https://www.jinse.com/blockchain/383589.html https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/DqhNAqjZICK3OJlmXabT2whttps://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/3pZ8W0PHQkZ6WnBj1Wiopghttps://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/n9argJiUfQJYGKlflENGMQhttps://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/4buyXtnIP_YAAALoLRS4bwhttps://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/2mwIVZ712R3OfxN6SFJCWg
Elastos Youku Channelhttps://i.youku.com/i/UNTk1MzY1NTU5Ng==
Elastos: Blockchain lecture 9https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/2pR4C-QN2twP6FLWJ2zxIw
Elastos: Internet era moves from virtual world to Internet of Thingshttps://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/q6J7DWVERq1ovmZybnbObA

ELAruolan and DingNing have come up with an informative piece discussing how cross-chain should be a middleware to the infrastructure of the future internet. This is a translation of the article.

(original link: https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/2sdeFV1Z8wHuMcz0V2gzkA)

In the development history of blockchain, there have been many difficulties such as throughput and scalability. In order to solve these problems, developers have taken pains to put forward technical solutions such as side chain, sub-chain, lightning network, DAG, sharding and cross-chain. But are these solutions the right package to solve all these problems? Can they become the standard protocols for the future Internet? Let’s discuss the Internet from the perspective of cross-chain technology.

1. The core of the Internet is a series of agreements

At the heart of the Internet is a set of protocols, collectively known as the “Internet Protocol Suite.” They define detailed rules on how computers are connected and networked.

There are several layers that make the Internet work. Each layer has its own function, and just like a building, each layer is supported by the next lower layer. A user usually comes across only the top layer, and does not interact with the layers below.

As shown in the figure above, the bottom layer is called the “Physical Layer”, the top layer is called the “Application Layer”, and the middle layers (from bottom) are “Link Layer”, “Network Layer” and “Transport Layer”.

The lower the layer, the closer it is to the hardware; the higher the layer is, the closer it is to the user. Each layer is designed to perform a function. In order to achieve these functions, there needs to be some common rules. These rules are called “protocols.” There are many protocols defined at every layer, but the general term for these agreements are called the “Internet Protocol Suite”, which is the core of the Internet.

2. The essence of the Sino-US 5G competition is to compete for protocol standards for the next generation Internet

The US media said that the early development of mobile communications was largely driven by US and European companies. With the arrival of the next era–the 5G era–the way people use the Internet will once again be transformed. A competition that determines whether the United States or China is dominant is unfolding. (https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1611294599609936400&wfr=spider&for=pc)

This competition in the field of science and technology has been ongoing, and has become increasingly fierce with the advent of the 5G era. The one who establishes the standards for the new Internet will take the greatest benefits. The original protocol standards of the Internet are mostly controlled by Western developed countries, which poses a great threat to China’s Internet security and its competitiveness of the future Internet.

3. Cross-chain technology is not a protocol but a mechanism

In many white papers or technical articles, cross-chaining is called a “protocol”. The information transmission protocol only governs how information is received, and the feedback received by sender does not consider the problem of repeated transmissions.

However, to synchronize the data between the ledgers, you need to make sure that the two ledgers change in the same way, otherwise there will be problems of double spending or loss of value.

Due to the rapid development of blockchain technology, the accounting mechanism and consensus mechanism of the chains are different. The establishment of a common cross-chain protocol becomes more complicated. Cross-chain “agreements” are more like bilateral and multilateral trade agreements. Individual differences are more obvious in the process of coming up with the agreements, and thus large-scale unification is difficult. There is a need to implement an accurate cross-ledger accounting for two ledgers by some technical means.

At this point, cross-chaining is actually a mechanism. Cross-chain is essentially a set of clearing mechanisms among chains, and the essence of clearing is accurate accounting.

The most important application scenarios after cross-chain implementation are decentralised trading, centralized bidding, and decentralized exchanges with hybrid clearing modes.

4. Cross-chain technology can be used as a middleware for the underlying technology of the Internet in the future

Cross-chain literally refers to connecting different blockchains, just like the bridges between two islands. In simple terms, cross-chaining is how to move a token on one chain to another. From an accounting standpoint, a single blockchain solves the problem of how to accurately record accounts in a ledger. Cross-chain solves the problem of how to accurately record two accounts in two ledgers.

Middleware is software between the operating system and the application, and some people think it should be part of the operating system. When people use middleware, they are often a group of middleware integrations to form a platform (including development platform and running platform). However, there must be a communication middleware in this group of middleware. In other words, middleware=platform+communication.

Cross-chain technology can promote the development of the blockchain industry and can be used as the middleware of the new Internet underlying technology. However, cross-chain does not solve the problem systematically as it has not reached the level of Internet architecture, but only in blockchain development. The current measures of applicability and scalability appears to be just taking stopgap measures.

5. The father of the Internet and giant tech companies in both China and overseas are a preview of future trends

  1. Microsoft disbanded the Windows working group and turned to developing the DID system. (https://wemedia.ifeng.com/49290420/wemedia.shtml)    
  2. Huawei Blockchain Strategy (http://tech.163.com/18/1031/14/DVF113TV000998GP.html)
  3. Tim Berners-Lee, the father of the Internet, regrets some of the flaws in his work, but he believes that blockchain technology can help in the repair of some Internet problems. (http://www.ctoutiao.com/1361431.html)

You can see that the world’s top technology companies and the father of the Internet are going to use blockchain to remedy the Internet with blockchain as an underlying technology for the future of the new Internet, hoping to build a secure, credible and decentralized computing environment. They have all seen the future trends, understand the nature and function of the blockchain, and they understand the use of blockchain as an integral component of Internet development.

The vision of Elastos is to create a blockchain-driven Smart Web (the new Internet), to integrate the Internet into the unified environment of the operating system, and create a secure, credible and decentralized Internet ecosystem. In such an environment, data can be guaranteed as private, and a huge free market economy can be formed to truly realize the value of the Internet.

Interview:  Kiran Pachhai

By Kenneth K

Would you mind introducing yourself?  Tell us a bit about your educational history and how you came to be involved in blockchain as well.

My name is Kiran, but most people know me by KP. I was born in a small town called Sandhikharka in Nepal. Don’t worry if you don’t know where it is because most people who are from Nepal don’t know of it either. I grew up in a town with almost no electricity and definitely very few computers, so when I reflect back on where I was 15 years ago to where I am now, it’s been an amazing journey and I was fortunate enough to come to the United States with my family when I was only 14 years old.

As far as my educational history, I went to a high school in Colorado and then later went to University of  Colorado at Boulder and got my Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Science in 2014. Between the years of 2014 and 2016, I worked at a telecommunications company called Avaya as a tools engineer and Java developer. I then moved to the east coast in Maryland and worked as a Devops Engineer in the Cybersecurity department at Lockheed Martin. In December of 2017, when the blockchain was all the hype, I started to learn about the technology and Elastos was one of the first few projects I came across and it instantly caught my eye. I have been involved in the blockchain industry ever since.

What roles do you play in EF and CR?  You seem to be everywhere, doing everything, and yet somehow you remain sane.  What’s your secret? What accomplishments are you most proud of related to EF and CR?

My role is very broad because I am involved in a lot of things in both EF and CR. On the EF side, I am a one of the leaders of the Devstudio team, am part of Dev Experience team, and I also help out the Communications and PR team. You could call me a jack of all trades, I suppose. I absolutely enjoy doing what I do and being involved in so many things definitely keeps my brain lit every single day. There is not a single moment wasted, and I feel proud of working for Elastos project every single day.

I am the author of Elastos Spotlight series, manage the developer workshops, and more recently have begun my involvement working with the George Mason University on various projects.

On the CR side, I am part of Elastos Orchard and also work as one of the moderators/Noderators. More recently, I have had some time to work on the noderators.org website that displays various Elastos-related statistics, and I am excited for our roadmaps and milestones.

I also work as a technical advisor to CR Press team for the CR (Bi)Weekly. I am proud to be part of each and every team because being able to contribute is great, and I would be bored if I wasn’t doing a lot of stuff anyways. My secret to managing so many things all at once is to learn to be passionate about what you do.

If you had to write some advice for a developer who was interested in learning about blockchain, and programming on Elastos in particular (which you may actually have already written, now that I think about it), what would you suggest both in practical life-lessons and also in best-resources for this curious developer?

I would encourage any developer who is interested in learning about blockchain to first, not be overwhelmed by the technology. Start with something simple like getting familiar with the terminology around blockchain and then start diving in. Learn to do something new everyday.

It doesn’t matter what language you’re good at. Just get into it and see if you can hack your way around because that’s how you learn things.

For Elastos, in particular, the blockchain infrastructure is written in Golang, Carrier is written in C/C++, and Hive is written in Golang. However, that doesn’t mean you need to learn Golang to start working with these technologies. Various SDKs in other languages like Java, Android, iOS are all available and ready so pick what you want to do and start diving in.

There are also REST APIs available which means you can interact with these APIs from pretty much any programming language. As for building apps for Trinity (Elastos Browser), you may want to learn about developing in ionic/cordova framework.

How do you spell “Genius?”

I’m no genius so I am not sure if this is a trick question…

In all seriousness, many in the community look up to you as the most technically knowledgeable CR member we have.  We have to rely on those more knowledgeable than us as most CR members aren’t developers, and people like you and Jimmy have won us a lot of faith in Elastos and the architecture behind it. That being said—what are your critiques of the technology itself?  Where do we need the most improvement? Then, to balance these criticisms, feel free to tell us why Elastos is awesome, too.

There are a lot of areas we need improvement when it comes to reaching developers on behalf of Elastos. For instance, we need to start targeting other existing blockchain developers (especially Ethereum developers) and at the same time, target traditional developers.

Elastos is an ecosystem so it’s not just about blockchain. Elastos is 3 things – Blockchain, Carrier and Hive. All three of these components are different networks built for 3 different things.

Blockchain is used for payments and smart contracts and decentralized IDs.

Carrier is used for decentralized relay of data.

While Hive is used for decentralized and distributed storage.

So, the areas Elastos covers is vast but maybe that’s also one of the reasons it’s tough to market to developers because no one is going to believe you if you start saying, “We do everything.”

So, maybe the focus should be for a niche audience. Target blockchain developers with blockchain technology, target traditional developers with Carrier and Hive. Elastos Dev Experience team is trying to focus exactly on this in the coming months, and we have some amazing things lined up.

In regards to CR, what are the biggest changes you are looking forward to, and what are the biggest changes that need to happen now?  What can the community do to help progress CR?

When it comes to CR, CR is for everyone but in order to make it fully functional, all the infrastructure needs to be ready first. It is, after all, supposed to represent a decentralized organization that is autonomous and running using both blockchain and human consensus.

It’s tricky to get both of these right, so in the meantime, it’s up to each one of us to start taking the initiative. Do not wait for others to tell you what you can do. Instead, if you’re good at something, just start making a difference. It’s much easier to approach the CR community and Council members if you demonstrate that you really are up to the task you want to be funded.

How do you feel about CR leadership?  EF leadership? Few Western Community members engage as intimately and regularly as you do with leadership.  Could you give us some insights on the leadership in general? No need to name individuals, but the community is always interested in who is leading and how leadership functions.

EF leadership is different compared to a traditional company leadership. First of all, it employs a holocracy model so there is no CEO. Instead, everything is run by consensus among the top members of the foundation.

CR leadership is the exact opposite (or, at least, that’s the eventual goal once the real Council members are in place), because CR also has consensus but instead of taking the top down approach, it’s the bottom-up approach. This means that the suggestions and proposals are coming from the community first, and even if the Council accepts the proposal, the community can voice their concerns in opposition and have authority.

This may not be in place now, but the blockchain itself will play a major role in the decision-making of any and all CR related proposals in the future, so this is more of a long term vision.

The Interim Council members are there today volunteering their time to run CR, so

sometimes, proposals may not get noticed or it may take a long time for proposals to get accepted. It’s normal because there are only three council members and everything is done manually at the moment.

Adoption, promises, partnerships.  Successes and failures, ups and downs—we’ve been through it all, and it’s only been about a year and a half.  What advice to you have to followers of Elastos? How do you feel about real progress when it comes to adoption of Elastos?  Are we on track? Are we ahead or behind?

I very much believe in the vision of Elastos. If I didn’t, you wouldn’t see me getting involved in new things and new projects every single day. There is a real need in the world and that void can only be filled with Elastos, but this will not happen overnight.

It all starts with us.

Each one of us has a role to play, so if you’re good at something and can contribute, just start contributing. If you don’t, no one else will.

My advice to everyone following Elastos is to be patient because the core team has been busy over the last few months and will be busy over the next several months when it comes to development of the Elastos infrastructure. You can start building apps already, although it might be difficult at the moment, but those bridges are being built so we can make it as easy as possible for new developers to join and build on Elastos.

We are definitely on track when it comes to technical milestones, and we will have lots of developer focused workshops and developer portals in the near future.  Stay tuned for that.

Not only in relation to Elastos and CR, where do you hope to see yourself in five or ten years from now?

I am looking forward to that 10 year anniversary for Elastos because then we’ll all proudly say, “We made it”.

CR Forum Topic Highlights

By YY

We’ve summarized some of the popular topics of this week:

CR Forum Topic Highlights

We’ve summarized some of the popular topics of the past two weeks:

Thoughts on Elastos FAQ (Part 2 to Part 6)

Ding Ning continues to create several topics surrounding some frequently asked questions about Elastos project.

a) Is Elastos a failed operating system coupled with blockchain?

  • Elastos was formerly known as “Hexin” operating system
  • Ecosystem is the key, not the operating system (e.g. Android’s open source is the key to winning the market)
  • Microsoft disbanded Windows working group and turned to bitcoin-based decentralised identity (DID) open sourced protocol known as ION
  • However, Google source codes are not open source and Microsoft’s DID system is still stuck at the “internet +” level and has not fundamentally changed the existing internet
  • The world needs an “altruistic” internet ecological mindset. Only “opens source, transparent and self-running” can with the trust of the world and will be in an invincible position in the future operating system wars.
  • “Hexin” combined with blockchain technology, is building a secure, credible and decentralized Internet environment. The project name is Elastos.

b) If Elastos becomes successful, who needs it? What is its relationship with other projects?

  • All blockchain projects need to survive and develop in the Internet environment.
  • Our current worldwide network has too much freedom whereby applications can be directly connected to the Internet, causing a large number of viruses, DDoS attacks, privacy leaks and other issues.
  • Elastos is the ultimate solution for our current Internet and also the ultimate solution for all existing blockchain projects (such as Ethereum, NEO, ICON, EOS, etc.).
  • What is missing from the blockchain industry is the design of the Internet system architecture. Elastos system is able to resolve this issue.
  • Many people think that the Elastos is a public welfare project
  • The value of ELA lies in various application scenarios in the future
  • In the Elastos ecosystem, ELA is digital gold, which is similar to the position that Bitcoin already has in the world.
  • From a certain perspective, if Elastos smart web is really practically built, It is the basis for better development of all blockchain projects.

c) Why did Elastos come up with a CR? What is it used for?

  • One of the big problems with Bitcoin is the lack of internal governance mechanisms.
  • When there is a problem, it is divided, which is extremely unfavorable for the development of the project.
  • Many projects are technically innovative, but the centralization mechanism is still working in community development, which runs counter to the concept of decentralization.
  • Cyber Republic, abbreviated as CR, is a decentralised autonomous organisation whereby community members can exercise the right as a community owners.

d) What is decentralised media? How can Elastos decentralise media?

  • What is the Media Player Center? Broadly speaking, the various software we see today. For example, MP3, movies, etc. are played by media playerS, doc files are “played” by Word, and HTML (hypertext markup language) is played by the internet browser.
  • How many blockchain projects have solved this “software player center”? How can they achieve what they claim to be “decentralized”?
  • Elastos system has made rational use of virtual machine technology, through virtual machine technology they can ensure that there is no internet access, no background daemon, and drivers can’t be installed.
  • The player is removed, that is, the software middle layer is removed, and all the data is turned into a program.  For example, a movie or a game is made into a self-playing file system, which removes the media player and solves the problem.
  • The virtual machine can run the media player and the media player loads data. So, indirectly, the virtual machine is the player of the player.
  • In the web 2.0 environment, all data is transmitted on the browser (such as songs, videos, and documents). If we can upload secure and trusted programs on the social network, this time, the entire user experience and revenue model will have a revolution.

e) We have heard that Elastos can solve all kinds of digital assets double spending problem, is that true?

  • Nakamoto has solved the double spending problem of digital tokens by creating bitcoin. It is a great thing that data can be confirmed by an self-running blockchain.
  • In the web 2.0 environment, digital content can be copied indefinitely, and digital content is often stolen by the perpetrators. These two questions are not resolved. How do we really achieve “Own Your Own Data”?
  • The reason blockchain can transfer value is because it is a program based on a piece of code that is trusted by both parties. Based on this thinking, to achieve anti-piracy on the internet, it is necessary to package any digital content created  into an executable code, that is, a small program, and only have the corresponding key to run the program.
  • This program does not run through third-party applications (because this third-party application can do evil) and can run directly on the operating system.
  • The operating system of the Elastos is also a virtual machine operating system. The Elastos system can turn all the data into programs, remove the software middle layer and remove second time of piracy.
  • In the new generation of internet systems built by Elastos, if there is a data infringement event, you can run a program similar to virus scanning to remove pirated content from the network.
  • The original network spreads data, and the use of Elastos systems can upload secure and trusted programs on decentralized networks. This is a revolutionary change.

f) What is operating system? What is included in the Elastos operating system?

  • The operating system (OS) is a system software that manages computer system resources and controls the running of programs. It provides users with a convenient, safe and reliable working environment and interface.
  • In full view, the operating system of Elastos smart web can be divided into four categories: (1) physical machine operating system, such as Linux; (2) virtual machine operating system, such as Elastos Runtime, which prohibits applications from directly accessing the network; (3) network operating systems, such as Elastos Carrier, coordinate a number of distributed physical machines with flexible virtual machine clusters on demand. If there is a fourth category, it is the object OS of the IoT sensor, which is essentially a peripheral OS, and the peripherals cannot access the Internet.
  • The execution of the program depends on the running environment of the execution, also known as the operating system. The operating system itself is only safe, control order, and the Elastos system is to create a secure, trustworthy and decentralized Internet environment.

g) Is there a difference between a series of public blockchain and the design architecture of Elastos?

  • The execution of the program depends on the running environment of the execution, also known as the operating system.  
  • What is lacking in the entire blockchain industry is the systematic design from the level of the internet architecture.
  • For example, in order to solve the problem of TPS, a bunch of blockchain projects manipulate the performance improvement of the public blockchain or fragmentation or cross-chaining. From the system point of view, it can’t be said that these jobs are meaningless, but it may be a headless fly experiment!
  • The function of the Elastos public blockchain in the whole system is similar to the fingerprint recognition of mobile phones. It is just a trust module. The idea of executing smart contracts on the public blockchain is completely different. It can be said to be an alternative.
  • Elastos also reinterprets the world computer in the blockchain industry from the perspective of the internet, and solves the trustworthy problem through network architecture reconstruction. This is a higher-level thinking with a blockchain.

h) Some public blockchain projects claim to have hundreds of thousands or millions of throughputs, so what is the throughput on Elastos sidechain?

  • While people have an optimistic view of blockchain, there is a technical bottleneck called the “impossible triangle”, which is still far from being able to exert its potential..
  • The most critical issue of the Ethereum smart contract is that there is no distinction between “system smart contract” and “application smart contract”. The public blockchain smart contract needs to support some functions common to the system. These functions need to be easily extended. For the application layer, it is not necessary to reach a consensus with all nodes (such as 6000~10000).
  • For example, if two people gamble, it is enough for 6 people to know, and it is not necessary to let 6,000 people know. According to different application scenarios, the blockchain needs to support different applications. Each chain is subject to consensus algorithms and performance limitations, and the application scenarios that can be supported are different. Some application scenarios require trusted accounting. At this time, PoW is suitable; some application scenarios are faster, and DPOS may be more appropriate at this time. The services provided by each blockchain may be very different, and a single blockchain cannot be adapted to all application scenarios.
  • A very simple logic is that smart contracts for third-party applications should not run on the public blockchain, but should run on the sidechain.
  • Elastos adopts the “main chain + sidechain” architecture. In the face of special applications, the cloud system has the ability to use Amazon Cloud and Alibaba Cloud to instantly get 6 or 60 virtual machines in the application runtime, through the sidechain.

i) What are the necessary conditions for blockchain to develop a smart economy?

  • people say that the blockchain is the value of the internet, and many blockchain projects also claim to be able to achieve smart economy.
  • More value comes from the transfer of digital assets. Token is just a bookkeeping. However, many of today’s blockchains only implementing tokens transfer, and do not involve the execution side of the digital assets behind them.
  • For example, to exchange a digital asset such as a movie or a game, the general blockchain project in the existing web 2.0 environment, these so-called digital assets will be stolen, copied, and slandered by others.
  • A secure, trusted internet environment is needed that requires digital assets to flow safely and scarcely on the basis of security.
  • How to take advantage of the blockchain combined with the internet to give consumers more integrity and bring real business value, this is the significance of the blockchain + internet.

j) Has the cross-chain project contributed to the development of the blockchain from the level of the entire internet architecture?

  • The goal of cross-chain project design is to solve two major problems of the current blockchain technologies spreading and adoption, i.e., instant expansion and extensibility.
  • Cross-chain does not solve the problem from the internet architecture refactoring. It is only the expansion and extension of the blockchain development process.
  • In building a new generation of internet, some existing blockchain projects are working in their respective fields, such as decentralized storage IPFS, decentralized cloud computing market (e.g. iExec), decentralized distributed communication network (e.g.
  • In particular, it is necessary to emphasize the project of creating a new generation of the internet as a vision – Elastos
  • Elastos is equipped with a relatively complete new generation of internet architecture, in addition to the public blockchain, there are peer-to-peer communication network (e.g. Carriers), Runtime, a variety of operating environments, development kits, and decentralized storage (e.g. Hive) and decentralized marketing platform (e.g. DMA).

k) What is the development status of the Elastos project?

  • It has also been less than 2 years since the beginning of Elastos and various projects have been carried out in an orderly manner.
  • In terms of blockchain and smart contracts, the Elastos backbone is also based on BTC. The DID side chain has been released. The team will provide a beta version of the ETH side chain, NEO side chain, tokens side chain and IPFS compatible HIVE in June 2019. Elastos Carrier has deployed more than one million devices worldwide and the number of online users is also in the hundreds of thousands.
  • In terms of ecosystem, DMA, Hyper, ElaChat, AnyPeer, Uptick, etc. are not mature enough, but they all have some progress. A self-running smart web infrastructure has been initially built. Compared with other public blockchains, it is also very fast in terms of progress.
  • Of course, there are also some shortcomings. For example, in terms of standardization, it is necessary to make up these lessons in order to allow more application developers to participate.

l) The development of blockchain requires consensus and the Elastos consensus has broken. What should we do?

  • The understanding of the Elastos blockchain in the past was dominated by emotions.
  • Although the consensus is relatively stable, the consensus stems from the hearts of the people, and the human heart often changes due to the outer events.
  • There will be a process of reshaping the consensus. The matter needs to be addressed by Elastos technology advancement, application landing and historical issues to resolve people’s doubts.
  • It is up to the community partners who are interested in the vision of the new generation to work together to promote project development.

m) Everyone is looking for the future of the blockchain. Is there any unique feature in Elastos that may lead the future consensus?

  • The development of an era needs to be driven by consensus.
  • The blockchain has to build the future value of the Internet, but the development of the existing blockchain has encountered inevitable bottlenecks.
  • Existing blockchain projects can achieve digital rights and tokens, but there is no implementation of a larger range of digital assets. For example: exchange a digital asset such as a movie or game.
  • On the other hand, it also has a centralized operation website. There is a browser under the blockchain. If the website is closed, it will not work (because if there is no detour operation). Businesses must rely on centralized network operations centers such as Tencent, Sina, and Facebook.
  • This series of problems requires a system solution that requires a high degree of system resolving from the internet architecture.
  • On the issue of capacity expansion, Elastos also provides the “main chain + side chain” system design.
  • In the design of the decentralized carrier, the Elastos Carrier is the basic project to realize the smart web without website.
  • To create a secure and trusted computing environment, Elastos Runtime provides sandbox isolation, network isolation and digital rights management. From here, Elastos DApps interact with the outside world through Elastos Carrier, which itself is an end-to-end encrypted peer-to-peer network with no central server, thus creating a fully secure ecosystem DApp runtime environment.

n) If Elastos project is cold in the market, what will happen in the future?

  • Most of the funds are chasing hot spots, and there is a tendency to follow the crowd. Nowadays, the hotspots are cross-chain, so the projects in this area will be on fire
  • A large amount of funds are looking for the future, hoping to grasp the breakthrough projects that can break the limits of this industry. The problem is that there is no final conclusion and there is no empirical data.
  • Elastos technology logic is advanced, but now it is still in the stage of primary infrastructure engineering, and the ecosystem has not been scaled up. Moreover, the consensus has broken down. This series of factors will increase people’s doubts about Elastos.
  • We can also think in reverse, and if Elastos is open source, transparent and self-running, no one can turn it off. Even if no one is optimistic or using it now, when the blockchain development encounters an unsolvable bottleneck, it is necessary to have a system project such as Elastos (reconstruction of the internet architecture) to solve the problem, don’t you? Elastos is already there, do you want to start from scratch? How much will that cost? Do you have such an engineering framework idea? Copy Elastos technology fully? How to gain trust in the open source community?
  • Elastos smart web is a “global computer” that is not controlled by any organization or individual. This is an objective existence.

If you can read Chinese and are interested in these topics, please click the following links:

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/topic/1239

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/topic/1233

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/topic/1227/2

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/topic/1219/2

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/topic/1213

Topics highlights

Check out these hot topics to see if there is anything that you can contribute to, or simply express your thoughts to help make the forum a truly vibrant community.

Top new topics

CR Press Announcements: New Publishing Schedule, Supernode, Sponsorships & Website Updates!

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/cr-press-announcements-new-publishing-schedule-supernode-sponsorships-website-updates/1222

Thank you Sunny Feng Han – CR Press

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/thank-you-sunny-feng-han-cr-press/1231

MIT Fireside Chat with Elastos DMA & Gavin Nicol

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/mit-fireside-chat-with-elastos-dma-gavin-nicol/1238

As of September this year, Elastos DMA platform is one year old.

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/9-elastos-dma/1240

Elastos main net 2.0 – Ilias version released

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/2-0-ilias/1241

Google’s Keyboard Predicted (Part of) My Private Key by Kenneth K

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/google-s-keyboard-predicted-part-of-my-private-key-by-kenneth-k/1243

Thoughts on Elastos FAQ (Part 2 to Part 6)

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/topic/1239

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/topic/1233

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/topic/1227/2

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/topic/1219/2

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/topic/1213

Top active topics (in terms of number of views and replies)

Hyper.im – Peer-to-Peer Instant Messenger

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/hyper-im-peer-to-peer-instant-messenger/289

Option Incentive Scheme for Elastos Brand Promotion

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/english-option-incentive-scheme-for-elastos-brand-promotion/814/38

Voter Reward Payout Script for DPoS Nodes

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/voter-reward-payout-script-for-dpos-nodes/753/13

Marketing & awareness of Elastos & The Cyber Republic https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/marketing-awareness-of-elastos-the-cyber-republic/102/8

Bi-weekly livestream with Rong Chen

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/bi-weekly-livestream-with-rong-chen/107/7

Supernode Pool Recruitment and Q & A

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/supernode-pool-recruitment-and-q-a/648/25

Hyber.im – Beta now available

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/hyper-im-beta-now-available/348/15

dApp idea thread

https://forum.cyberrepublic.org/t/dapp-idea-thread/342/12

Official CR Press Sponsors:

Glossary:


Elastos Hive Cluster: a decentralized File Storage Service that based on IPFS cluster.

Elastos Unity:  a Javascript framework for developing dapps, similar to Trinity’s Ionic framework, but native to Android and iOS.

Elastos Sidechain: a scaling solution that utilizes parallel blockchains to the main chain in order decrease transaction congestion on the main chain.

Elastos Private Net: a private developer environment for local app testing on the Elastos Blockchain and Sidechains.

Elastos Runtime: the environment that code can run on, like an encyclopedia or a library about a new world in which digital assets are run under the blockchain.

DPoS:  Delegated Proof of Stake is a method of finding blockchain consensus in which specific machines (delegates) are trusted with the power to verify transactions.  These delegates are voted in by the community.

Elastos DID:  An Elastos sidechain that can be integrated with any other sidechain on Elastos. Its function is to provide a unique identity to a user and to store that user’s data in a secure, decentralized, and provable way.

Merged Mining: Mining two blockchains at the same time without any additional resource consumption.  This allows a smaller blockchain to “piggyback” the power of a larger chain and leverage the security of its hash power.  In Elastos’ case, the larger chain is Bitcoin.

DDoS Attack: Distributed Denial of Service–An attack that renders an online service dysfunctional by overwhelming it with traffic from multiple sources.

Hash Rate: The computing speed at which a mining machine can operate.

Decentralized Application (DApp):  An application built on a decentralized peer-to-peer network that is not controlled by any single authority.

Cold Storage:  A digital wallet stored on a platform not connected to the internet.  This protects from unauthorized access, cyber hacks, and other vulnerabilities to which  any system connected to the internet is susceptible.

Hackathon: A high intensity meetup, often spanning days, where programmers can work exclusively on anything they want in a collaborative manner.

Block Explorer: A Block Explorer is an online browser displaying the contents of a blockchain’s blocks, transactions, hashes, histories and balances of addresses.

Internet of Things (IoT): Objects that can record and transmit data, communicating directly with one another without human interference.

Mining Pool: A group of miners who combine their hash power and share their rewards in order to have a higher probability of solving blocks.

Daemon: A computing process that runs in the background, performing certain tasks at certain times without user approval, often performing administrative actions for the Operating System.

Feel free to leave a comment with your concerns, questions, and suggestions (or praises), for the Cyber Republic.

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